Recommended Reading

Diffusive Gradients in Thin-Films for Environmental Measurements, Ed. W. Davison, Cambridge University Press, 2016, Cambridge.

The book includes explanations of the fundamental principles of DGT, accessible to readers with a modest background in chemistry, as well as more advanced chapters that provide a thorough treatment of the physical and chemical dynamics of this technique and evaluate how well it mimics the biological uptake process. Chapters on natural waters, soils and sediments illustrate the applications of DGT, and detailed instructions are included on how to use DGT in practice.

Combining the fundamentals of DGT with more advanced principles, this is an indispensable text for students, researchers and professional scientists considering using DGT to further their interest in the chemistry of natural waters, soils and sediments.


  1. Introduction to DGT
    William Davison and Hao Zhang
  2. Principles of measurements in simple solutions
    William Davison and Hao Zhang
  3. Diffusion layer properties
    Hao Zhang and William Davison
  4. Binding layer properties
    William W. Bennett, Maja Arsic, Jared G. Panther, David T. Welsh, and Peter R. Teasdale
  5. Interpreting the DGT measurement: speciation and dynamics
    Jaume Puy, Josep Galceran and Carlos Rey-Castro
  6. Applications in natural waters
    Heléne Osterlund, Anders Widerlund and Johan Ingri
  7. Principles and application in soils and sediments
    Niklas J. Lehto
  8. Measurement at high spatial resolution
    Jakob Santner and Paul N. Williams
  9. DGT and bioavailability
    Fien Degryse and Erik Smolders
  10. Practicalities of working with DGT
    Dianne F. Jolley, Sean Mason, Yue Gao and Hao Zhang

Further details/purchase at:

Useful reviews

W. Davison, G. Fones, M. Harper, P. Teasdale and H. Zhang, Dialysis, DET and DGT: in situ diffusional techniques for studying water, sediments and soils, In: In Situ Monitoring of Aquatic Systems: Chemical Analysis and Speciation, ed. J. Buffle and G. Horvai, IUPAC Series Analytical and Physical Chemistry of Environmental Systems, Vol 6, (Chichester, UK: Wiley, 2000), pp. 495-569.

K. W. Warnken, H. Zhang and W. Davison, In-situ monitoring and dynamic speciation measurements in solution using DGT. In: Passive Sampling Techniques in Environmental Monitoring, ed. R. Greenwood, G. Mills and B. Vrana, Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 48, (Amsterdam, Elsevier, 2007), pp 251-278.

W. Davison, H. Zhang and K. W. Warnken, Theory and Applications of DGT Measurements in Soils and Sediments. In: Passive Sampling Techniques in Environmental Monitoring, eds: R. Greenwood, G. Mills and B. Vrana, Comprehensive Analytical chemistry, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Vol. 48, (Amsterdam, Elsevier, 2007), pp 353-378.

W. Davison and H. Zhang, Progress in understanding the use of diffusive gradients in thin-films – back to basics, Environ. Chem. 9: (2012), 1-13.

H. Zhang and W. Davison, Use of DGT for studies of chemical speciation and bioavailability, Environ. Chem. 12: (2015), 85-101.

F. Degryse, E. Smolders, H. Zhang and W. Davison, Predicting availability of mineral elements to plants with the DGT technique: a review of experimental data and interpretation by modelling, Environ. Chem. 6: (2009), 198-218.

First DET paper

W. Davison, G. W. Grime, J. A. W. Morgan and K. Clarke, Distribution of dissolved iron in sediment pore waters at submillimeter resolution, Nature 352: (1991), 352, 323-325.

First DGT paper

W. Davison and H. Zhang, H. In-situ speciation measurements of trace components in natural-waters using thin-film gels. Nature 367: (1994), 546-548.